Francis Bennion portrait

Home

Human Rights

Law

Politics & Government

Professionalism

Sexual Ethics

Religion & Belief

Poetry Fiction Drama Other

About FB

Google

www this site

SITEMAP

 

ABOUT FB

. . CV

. . Autobiographical

. . Life photos

. . FB's Scrapbook

 

WRITINGS BY FB

. . Chronological

. . Complete list

. . The Bennion Code

. . FB books

. . FB articles etc.

. . FB press letters

. . Book reviews

. . Blogs

. . Archive

. . Acts mentioned

. . People mentioned

 

WRITINGS BY OTHERS

. . Chronological

. . Index

. . Press cuttings

. . Reviews-FB books

. .

OTHER MATERIAL

. . Photograph Album

. . Document list

. . Audio and video

 

Abbreviations

 

 

Note:Francis Bennion sadly died on 28 January 2015.

Contact Webmaster

 

Copyright

Disclaimer

 

Acrobat reader
     

BENNION ON STATUTORY INTERPRETATION

5th edition, LexisNexis 2008

 

Publishers: LexisNexis, 2008

Doc. No. 2008.013.000e

 

The Code: Arrangement of Sections

 

Preface to the 5th edition

Books by Francis Bennion

Contents

The Code: Summary of Parts

The Code: Arrangement of Sections

How to Use this Book

Table of Statutes

Table of Statutory Instruments

Table of Foreign Enactments

Table of European Material

Table of Cases

 

Introduction 1

 

Division One. Interpreter, Instrument and Enactment 21

Part I. The Interpreter 23

Preliminary 23

Section 1. To 'construe' or 'interpret'? 23

Section 2. Interpreter's duty to arrive at legal meaning 24

Section 3. Real doubt as to legal meaning 25

Types of interpreter 26

Section 4. Types of interpreter: (1) the legislator 26

Section 5. Types of interpreter: (2) courts and other enforcement agencies 27

Section 6. Types of interpreter: (3) the jurist or text writer 28

Section 7. Types of interpreter: (4) the subject 34

The subject as interpreter 37

Section 8. Duty to obey legislation 37

Section 9. Ignorantia juris neminem excusat 40

Section 10. Mandatory and directory requirements 44

Section 11. Where contracting out and waiver allowed 57

Section 12. Where contracting out and waiver not allowed 60

Section 13. Criminal sanction for disobedience (the offence of contempt of statute) 62

Section 14. Civil sanction for disobedience (the tort of breach of statutory duty) 67

Enforcement agencies 85

Section 15. Administrative or executive agencies 85

Section 16. Authorising agencies 92

Section 17. Investigating agencies 93

Section 18. Prosecuting agencies 95

Section 19. Courts and other adjudicating authorities 101

Section 20. Interpretation by adjudicating authorities 122

Section 21. Doctrine of judicial notice 133

Section 22. Adjudicating authorities with original jurisdiction 138

Section 23. Adjudicating authorities with appellate jurisdiction 142

Section 24. Judicial review 154

Section 25. Executive agencies ancillary to adjudicating authorities 166

Section 26. Dynamic processing of legislation by courts and other enforcement agencies 167

 

Part II. The Instrument to be Interpreted: Acts of Parliament 179

Section 27. Definition of an Act 179

Section 28. Types of Act 183

Section 29. Interpreter's need to understand nature of an Act 191

Section 30. Temporal, territorial and personal operation of an Act 194

Section 31. Doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty 197

Section 32. Overriding effect of an Act 197

Section 33. Uniqueness of an Act 204

Section 34. Whether an Act binds the Crown: the doctrine of Crown immunity 206

Section 35. Need for validation of Act 212

Section 36. Enactment procedure 213

Section 37. Royal assent procedure 216

Section 38. Royal assent (signification) 217

Section 39. Royal assent (communication) 220

Section 40. Royal assent (absence or illness of Monarch) 222

Section 41. Royal assent (demise of the Crown) 223

Section 42. Royal assent (regency) 223

Section 43. Validation under Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949 (money Bills) 223

Section 44. Validation under Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949 (other Bills) 224

Section 45. Settling of text of Act and promulgation 225

Section 46. Official published editions of Acts 230

 

Part III. The Instrument to be Interpreted: Subordinate Legislation 237

Prerogative instruments 237

Section 48. Nature of a prerogative instrument 237

Section 49. Interpretation of a prerogative instrument 240

Delegated legislation 241

Section 50. Nature of delegated legislation 241

Section 51. Parliamentary control of delegated legislation 247

Section 52. Types of delegate: (1) The Sovereign 250

Section 53. Types of delegate: (2) Privy Council 251

Section 54. Types of delegate: (3) House of Commons 251

Section 55. Types of delegate: (4) Ministers of the Crown 251

Section 56. Types of delegate: (5) Other functionaries 252

Section 57. Duties as to exercise of a power to make delegated legislation 253

Section 58. Ultra vires delegated legislation 254

Section 59. Delegated legislation: the rule of primary intention 262

Section 60. Delegated legislation: general interpretative principle 263

Section 61. Types of delegated legislation: (1) statutory instruments 266

Section 62. Types of delegated legislation: (2) orders 267

Section 63. Types of delegated legislation: (3) regulations 268

Section 64. Types of delegated legislation: (4) rules 268

Section 65. Types of delegated legislation: (5) byelaws 269

Section 66. Types of delegated legislation: (6) other instruments 271

Section 67. Sub-delegation 272

Section 68. Commencement of delegated legislation 273

Section 69. Amendment of delegated legislation 274

Section 70. Revocation of delegated legislation 275

 

Part IV. Commencement, Amendment and Repeal of Acts 277

Commencement of acts 277

Section 71. Meaning of 'commencement' 277

Section 72. Commencement on passing of Act 280

Section 73. Commencement on date specified in Act 280

Section 74. Commencement on date or dates specified by government order 283

Section 75. Commencement of different provisions on different days 286

Section 76. Preparatory orders etc 286

Amendment of acts 287

Section 77. Meaning of 'amendment' 287

Section 78. Textual amendment 288

Section 79. Indirect express amendment 292

Section 80. Implied amendment 293

Section 81. Amendment by delegated legislation 293

Section 82. Consequential amendment 295

Section 83. References to an amended enactment 298

Section 84. Extra-statutory concessions 299

Repeal or expiry of acts 300

Section 85. Meaning of 'repeal' 300

Section 86. The practice of 'double' repeal 302

Section 87. Implied repeal 304

Section 88. Generalia specialibus non derogant 306

Section 89. Savings on repeal 307

Section 90. Commencement of substituted provisions 310

Section 91. Repeal and re-enactment (adaptation of references) 310

Section 92. Repeal and re-enactment (preserving delegated legislation) 311

Section 93. Repeal and re-enactment (preserving other things done) 311

Section 94. Expiry 311

Section 95. Desuetude 312

Transitional provisions 314

Section 96. Transitional provisions on repeal, amendment etc 314

Retrospective operation of acts 315

Section 97. Presumption against retrospective operation 315

Section 98. Retrospective operation: procedural provisions 320

Section 99. Retrospective operation: events occurring over a period 322

Section 100. Retrospective operation: delegated powers 324

Section 101. Retrospective operation: cause of doubt 325

 

Part V. Extent and Application of Acts 327

Territorial extent of an Act 327

Section 102. Basic rule as to extent of an Act 327

Section 103. The 'extent' of an Act 329

Section 104. Uniform meaning throughout area of extent 330

Section 105. Composition of an enactment's territory 334

Section 106. Presumption of United Kingdom extent 335

Section 107. Extent to Her Majesty's independent dominions 338

Section 108. Meaning of 'associated state' 340

Section 109. Meaning of 'baseline' 340

Section 110. Meaning of 'Berwick upon Tweed' 341

Section 111. Meaning of 'British Islands' 342

Section 112. Meaning of 'British possession' 343

Section 113. Meaning of 'The Channel Islands' 343

Section 114. Meaning of 'colony' 345

Section 115. Meaning of 'England' 346

Section 116. Meaning of 'Great Britain' 346

Section 117. Meaning of 'Her Majesty's dominions' 348

Section 118. Meaning of 'Her Majesty's independent dominions' 350

Section 119. Meaning of 'high seas' 350

Section 120. Meaning of 'internal waters' 351

Section 121. Meaning of 'Isle of Man' 351

Section 122. Meaning of 'Monmouthshire' 352

Section 123. Meaning of 'Northern Ireland' 354

Section 124. Meaning of 'Scotland' 355

Section 125. Meaning of ‘territorial waters’ or 'territorial sea' 356

Section 126. Meaning of 'United Kingdom' 358

Section 127. Meaning of 'Wales' 359

Application of an act to persons and matters 360

Section 128. General principles as to application 360

Section 129. Application to foreigners and foreign matters within the territory 364

Section 130. Application to foreigners and foreign matters outside the territory 371

Section 131. Application to Britons and British matters outside the territory 378

Section 132. The high seas and other unappropriated territories 385

Section 133. Deemed location of an omission 387

Section 134. Deemed location of composite act or composite omission 387

Section 135. Deemed location of an artificial person 389

 

Part VI. The Enactment and the Facts 391

Preliminary 391

Section 136. Applying the enactment to the facts 391

What an enactment is 394

Section 137. The unit of inquiry in statutory interpretation 394

Section 138. Nature of an 'enactment' 396

Section 139. Selective comminution 401

Section 140. Challenging an enactment's validity 404

Section 141. Precise and disorganised enactments 409

Section 142. Drafting presumed competent 413

Section 143. The factual outline 416

Section 144. The legal thrust 421

The facts of the instant case 423

Section 145. Relevant and irrelevant facts 423

Section 146. Proof of relevant facts 427

Section 147. Judicial notice of relevant facts 428

Section 148. Questions of fact and degree 428

Section 149. Opposing constructions of an enactment 429

 

Division Two. The Legal Meaning of an Enactment 439

Part VII. Grammatical and Strained Constructions 441

The legal meaning 441

Section 150. Nature of the legal meaning 441

The grammatical meaning 443

Section 151. Nature of the grammatical meaning 443

Section 152. Grammatical ambiguity (application of interpretative factors) 444

Section 153. Grammatical ambiguity (general and relative ambiguity) 447

Section 154. Grammatical ambiguity and the opposing constructions 448

Section 155. Semantic obscurity and the 'corrected version' 451

Section 156. Use of the phrase 'literal meaning' 455

Strained construction 456

Section 157. Nature of strained construction 456

Section 158. When strained construction needed 458

Section 159. Strained construction as former 'equitable construction' 463

Section 160. Repugnancy within the Act 465

Section 161. Enactment repugnant to descriptive component of Act 466

Section 162. Term or phrase with differing legal meanings 466

 

Part VIII. Legislative Intention 469

Section 163: Legislative intention as the paramount criterion 469

Section 164. Is legislative intention fictitious? 472

Section 165. Legislative intention and the nature of legislation 474

Section 166. The duplex approach to legislative intention 477

Section 167. Legislative intention and delegation to the court 479

Section 168. Where no actual intention existed 480

Section 169. Unforeseen facts and accidental fit 482

Section 170. Intention distinguished from purpose or object 483

Section 171. Intention distinguished from motive 484

 

Part IX. Filling in the Textual Detail 487

Section 172. Nature of a legislative implication 487

Section 173. Is it legitimate to draw implications? 491

Section 174. When legislative implications are legitimate 494

Section 175. When legislative implications affect related law 499

Section 176. Dynamic processing by the court (stare decisis) 502

Section 177. Interstitial articulation (general) 504

Section 178. Interstitial articulation by the advocate 505

Section 179. Interstitial articulation by the court 505

 

Part X. Interpretative Criteria and Interpretative Factors 511

Interpretative criteria 511

Section 180. Nature of the criteria: rules, principles, presumptions, canons 511

Section 181. Ascertaining the cause of doubt 515

Section 182. Strict and liberal construction 516

Interpretative factors 519

Section 183. Nature of an interpretative factor 519

Section 184. Positive and negative interpretative factors 520

Section 185. Interpretative factors all pointing one way 521

Weighing the factors 523

Section 186. Nature of the weighing operation 523

Section 187. Where legislator has indicated a view about weighting 528

Section 188. Dealing with grammatical ambiguity 529

Section 189. Dealing with semantic obscurity 531

Section 190. Where strained construction needed 533

Section 191. Coping with changes in legal policy 537

 

Division Three. Rules of Construction 541

Part XI. Rules of Construction (General) 543

Section 192. Nature of rules of construction 543

Section 193. Basic rule of statutory interpretation 544

Section 194. Duty to respect the juridical nature of an enactment 548

Section 195. The plain meaning rule 548

Section 196. Rule where meaning not 'plain' 551

Section 197. The commonsense construction rule 551

Section 198. The rule ut res magis valeat quam pereat 558

 

Part XII. Rules of Construction Laid Down by Statute 561

Section 199. Statutory definitions 561

Section 200. The Interpretation Act 1978 575

 

Part XIII. The Informed Interpretation Rule (General) 585

Section 201. Statement of the rule 585

Section 202. The 'context' of an enactment 588

Section 203. Need to avoid unpredictability and lengthening of proceedings 590

Section 204. The two-stage approach to statutory interpretation 591

Section 205. Interpreter's need for legal knowledge 593

Section 206. Skeleton arguments 593

Section 207. Admission de bene esse of matter bearing on interpretation 596

 

Part XIV. The Informed Interpretation Rule (Legislative History) 597

Preliminary 598

Section 208. Legislative history as a guide to construction 598

Pre-enacting history 599

Section 209. The basic rule 599

Section 210. The pre-Act law 599

Section 211. Consolidation Acts 604

Section 212. Codifying Acts 608

Enacting history 609

Section 213. Meaning of enacting history 609

Section 214. The basic rule 610

Section 215. Use of sources referred to in Act 612

Section 216. Use of committee reports leading up to Bill 614

Section 217. Use of Hansard 616

Section 218. Use of amendments to Bill 640

Section 219. Use of explanatory memoranda 641

Section 220. Special restriction on parliamentary materials (the exclusionary rule) 644

Section 221. Use of international treaties 682

Section 222. Judicial use of enacting history 691

Section 223. Inspection of by court of enacting history 691

Section 224. Recitals of by advocates of enacting history 693

Section 225. Adoption as part of advocate's argument 693

Section 226. Use of enacting history to ascertain Parliament's view of pre-Act law 694

Section 227. Use to ascertain mischief 696

Section 228. Use of enacting history as an indication of Parliament's intention 697

Section 229. Enacting history as persuasive authority only 698

Section 230. Not binding authority 701

Post-enacting history 702

Section 231. The basic rule 702

Section 232. Use of official statements on meaning of Act 702

Section 233. Use of delegated legislation made under Act 706

Section 234. Use of later Acts in pari materia 708

Section 235. Use of judicial decisions on Act 710

Section 236. Use of committee reports on Act 711

Section 237. Use of commentaries on Act 712

 

Part XV. The Functional Construction Rule 713

Statement of the rule 713

Section 238. Statement of the rule 713

Operative components of Act 718

Section 239. Nature of operative components 718

Section 240. The section 719

Section 241. The Schedule 721

Section 242. The proviso 723

Section 243. The saving 725

Amendable descriptive components of Act 727

Section 244. Nature of amendable descriptive components 727

Section 245. The long title 727

Section 246. The preamble 731

Section 247. The purpose clause 734

Section 248. The recital 735

Section 249. The short title 735

Section 250. Examples 739

Unamendable descriptive components of Act 741

Section 251. Nature of unamendable descriptive components 741

Section 252. Chapter number 741

Section 253. Date of passing 744

Section 254. Enacting formula 744

Section 255. Heading 745

Section 256. Section name (sidenote, heading or title) 747

Section 257. Format 749

Section 258. Punctuation 751

Incorporation of provisions by reference 758

Section 259. Nature of incorporation by reference 758

Section 260. Archival drafting 759

Section 261. Acts construed as one 762

Section 262. Collective titles 764

 

Division Four. Interpretative Principles Derived from Legal Policy 767

Part XVI. Interpretative Principles (General) 769

Section 263. Nature of legal policy 769

Section 264. Law should serve the public interest 786

Section 265. Law should be just and fair 795

Section 266. Law should be certain and predictable 799

Section 267. Law should not operate retrospectively 807

Section 268. Law should be coherent and self-consistent 808

Section 269. Law should not be subject to casual change 812

Section 270. Municipal law should conform to international law 817

 

Part XVII. Principle against doubtful penalisation 825

Section 271. Principle against penalisation under a doubtful law 825

Section 272. Statutory interference with human life or health 831

Section 273. Statutory restraint of the person 836

Section 274. Statutory interference with family rights 840

Section 275. Statutory interference with religious freedom 842

Section 276. Statutory interference with free assembly and association 843

Section 277. Statutory interference with free speech 844

Section 278. Statutory interference with economic interests 846

Section 279. Statutory interference with status or reputation 851

Section 280. Statutory interference with privacy 852

Section 281. Statutory interference with rights of legal process 853

Section 282. Other statutory interference with rights as a citizen 858

 

Division Five. Interpretative Presumptions Based on the Nature of Legislation 861

Part XVIII. Interpretative Presumptions (General) 863

Section 283. Nature of interpretative presumptions 863

Section 284. Presumption that text is primary indication of legal meaning 864

Section 285. Presumption that literal meaning to be followed 864

Section 286. Presumption that consequential construction to be given 869

Section 287. Presumption that rectifying construction to be given 875

Section 288. Presumption that updating construction to be given 889

 

Part XIX. The Mischief and its Remedy 915

Section 289. Presumption that court to apply remedy provided for the 'mischief' 915

Section 290. Meaning of the 'mischief' 916

Section 291. The resolution in Heydon's Case 918

Section 292. The social mischief 922

Section 293. The legal mischief 923

Section 294. Party-political mischiefs 927

Section 295. Ambit of the mischief 929

Section 296. The particular mischief of an enactment 930

Section 297. The mischief for which Parliament actually legislated 931

Section 298. Mischief arising only within context of the remedy 933

Section 299. Phasing out a legal mischief 934

Section 300. Discerning the mischief 935

Section 301. Use of the mischief in interpretation 937

Section 302. Remedy provided for the mischief 940

 

Part XX. Purposive Construction 943

Section 303. Presumption that enactment to be given a purposive construction 943

Section 304. Nature of purposive construction 944

Section 305. Purposive-and-literal construction 951

Section 306. Purposive-and-strained construction 955

Section 307. Statements of purpose 959

Section 308. Where purpose unknown or doubtful 963

Section 309. Judicial acceptance of legislator's purpose 963

Section 310. Purposive construction not excluded for taxing etc Acts 965

Section 311. British and European versions of purposive construction 966

 

Part XXI. Construction Against 'Absurdity' 969

Section 312. Presumption that 'absurd' result not intended 969

Section 313. Avoiding an unworkable or impracticable result 971

Section 314. Avoiding an inconvenient result 979

Section 315. Avoiding an anomalous or illogical result 986

Section 316. Avoiding a futile or pointless result 999

Section 317. Avoiding an artificial result 1003

Section 318. Avoiding a disproportionate counter-mischief 1006

 

Part XXII. Construction Against Evasion 1009

Section 319. Presumption that evasion not to be allowed 1009

Section 320. Evasion distinguished from avoidance 1014

Section 321. Tax avoidance 1017

Section 322. Methods of evasion: doing indirectly what must not be done directly 1023

Section 323. Methods of evasion: deferring liability 1024

Section 324. Methods of evasion: repetitious acts 1025

Section 325. Construction which hinders legal proceedings under Act 1026

Section 326. Construction which otherwise defeats legislative purpose 1027

 

Part XXIII. Application of Ancillary Rules of Law 1033

Section 327. Presumption that ancillary rules of law apply 1033

Section 328. Presumption that rules of constitutional law apply 1042

Section 329. Presumption that public law decision-making rules apply 1050

Section 330. Presumption that rules of equity apply 1064

Section 331. Presumption that rules of contract law apply 1069

Section 332. Presumption that rules of property law apply 1071

Section 333. Presumption that rules of tort law apply 1073

Section 334. Presumption that rules of criminal law apply 1077

Section 335. Rules of evidence 1086

Section 336. Presumption that rules of private international law (conflict of laws) apply 1097

 

Part XXIV.Application of Ancillary Legal Maxims 1101

Section 337. Presumption that ancillary legal maxims apply 1101

Section 338. Intentions deduced from actions: acta exteriora indicant interiora secreta 1104

Section 339. Act of God: actus dei nemini facit injuriam 1104

Section 340. Reliance on illegality: allegans suam turpitudinem non est audiendus 1105

Section 341. Hearing both sides: audi alteram partem 1111

Section 342. Double detriment: bona fides non patitur, ut bis idem exigatur 1116

Section 343. De minimis principle: de minimis non curat lex 1116

Section 344. Domestic sanctuary: domus sua cuique est tutissimum refugium 1124

Section 345. Impotence: Impotentia excusat legem 1128

Section 346. Impossibility: lex non cogit ad impossibilia 1129

Section 347. Necessity: necessitas non habet legem 1133

Section 348. Judge in own cause: nemo debet esse judex in propria causa 1136

Section 349. Benefit from own wrong: nullus commodum capere potest de injuria sua propria 1141

Section 350. Presumption of correctness: omnia praesumuntur rite et solemniter esse acta 1144

Section 351. Agency: qui facit per alium facit per se 1146

Section 352. Vigilance: vigilantibus non dormientibus leges subveniunt 1149

Section 353. Volenti principle: volenti non fit injuria 1150

 

Division Six. Linguistic Canons of Construction 1153

Part XXV. Linguistic Canons of Construction: General 1155

Section 354. Nature of linguistic canons of construction 1155

Section 355. Construction of Act or other instrument as a whole 1155

Section 356. Interpretation of broad terms 1167

 

Part XXVI. Linguistic Canons of Construction: Use of Deductive Reasoning 1171

Section 357. Use of deductive reasoning 1171

Section 358. Nature of deductive reasoning 1171

Section 359. The hypothetical syllogism 1174

Section 360. The ambiguous middle term 1175

Section 361. The principle of contradiction 1177

 

Part XXVII. Linguistic Canons of Construction: Interpretation of Particular Words and Phrases 1181

Section 362. Interpretation of individual words and phrases 1181

Section 363. Ordinary meaning of words and phrases 1181

Section 364. Composite expressions 1193

Section 365. Technical terms (general) 1197

Section 366. Technical legal terms 1199

Section 367. Technical non-legal terms 1203

Section 368. Terms with both ordinary and technical meaning 1206

Section 369. Neologisms and slang 1209

Section 370. Archaisms 1213

Section 371. Terms applied in a foreign context 1215

Section 372. Abbreviations 1216

Section 373. Homonyms 1217

Section 374. Meaningless terms 1219

Section 375. Judicial notice of meaning 1221

Section 376. Evidence of meaning 1223

 

Part XXVIII. Linguistic Canons of Construction: Elaboration of Meaning of Words and Phrases 1225

Section 377. Canon regarding elaboration of meaning of words and phrases 1225

Section 378. Noscitur a sociis principle 1225

Section 379. Ejusdem generis principle: description 1231

Section 380. Ejusdem generis principle: nature of a 'genus' 1234

Section 381. Ejusdem generis principle: single genus-describing term 1237

Section 382. Ejusdem generis principle: genus-describing terms followed by wider residuary words 1239

Section 383. Ejusdem generis principle: genus-describing terms surrounding wider word 1241

Section 384. Ejusdem generis principle: general words followed by narrower genus-describing terms 1242

Section 385. Ejusdem generis principle: express exclusion of 1242

Section 386. Ejusdem generis principle: implied exclusion of 1244

Section 387. Rank principle 1245

Section 388. Reddendo singula singulis principle 1247

Section 389. Expressum facit cessare tacitum 1249

Section 390. Expressio unius principle: description 1250

Section 391. Expressio unius principle: words of designation 1252

Section 392. Expressio unius principle: words providing remedies etc 1254

Section 393. Expressio unius principle: words of extension 1255

Section 394. Expressio unius principle: words of exception 1256

Section 395. Expressio unius principle: where other cause for the expressio 1258

Section 396. Implication by oblique reference 1259

Section 397. Implication where statutory description only partly met 1262

 

Division Seven. Europe 1271

Part XXIX. Community law and the European Court 1273

Section 398. Interpretation of Part XXIX 1273

Principles of community law 1275

Section 399. General principles of Community law 1275

Section 400. Protection of human rights 1276

Section 401. Solidarity 1277

Section 402. Effectiveness of law 1277

Section 403. Legal certainty 1277

Section 404. Legitimate expectation 1278

Section 405. Treatment of retrospectivity 1279

Section 406. Proportionality 1280

Section 407. Subsidiarity 1282

Further provisions as to community law 1282

Section 408. Status of Community law 1282

Section 409. Proof of Community law 1283

Section 410. Interpretation of Community law 1283

Section 411. Direct effect of Community law 1287

Section 412. Transposing of Community law 1290

Section 413. Effect of Community law on UK enactments 1293

Court of Justice of the European Communities ('CJEC') 1300

Section 414. Constitution of CJEC 1300

Section 415. Jurisdiction of CJEC 1302

Section 416. References to CJEC under Article 234 (ex Article 177) of EC Treaty 1303

Section 417. Remedies against Member States 1308

Section 418. Convention on Jurisdiction and the Enforcement of Judgments 1309

 

Part XXX. Human Rights Act 1998 1311

Introduction to Part XXX 1311

THE CONVENTION RIGHTS (GENERAL) 1317

Section 419. Nature of the Convention rights 1317

Section 420. Duty to take account of Convention jurisprudence 1320

COMPATIBILITY OF UK LEGISLATION WITH CONVENTION RIGHTS: I JUDGES’ FUNCTIONS 1322

Section 421. <3170> Compatible construction rule 1322

Section 422. Judicial <3283>declaration of incompatibility (primary legislation) 1330

Section 423. Judicial declaration of incompatibility (subordinate legislation) 1333

Section 424. Effect of incompatibility declaration 1333

Section 425. Joinder of Crown where incompatibility declaration expected 1333

COMPATIBILITY OF UK LEGISLATION WITH CONVENTION RIGHTS: II MINISTERS’ FUNCTIONS 1334

Section 426. Ministers’ statements of compatibility regarding Bills 1334

Section 427. Rectifying of legislation which is subject to incompatibility declaration 1335

Section 428 Rectifying of legislation after finding by ECtHR 1335

Section 429. Consequential amendment of power to make subordinate legislation 1336

Section 430. Content, effect etc of remedial orders 1336

Section 431. Parliamentary control of remedial orders 1337

INCOMPATIBLE ACTS AND OMISSIONS OF UK PUBLIC AUTHORITIES 1338

Section 432. Illegality of incompatible acts and omissions of public authorities 1338

Section 433. Exceptions from liability for incompatible acts and omissions 1341

Section 434. Proceedings for incompatible non-judicial acts and omissions 1341

Section 435. Proceedings for incompatible judicial acts and omissions 1342

Section 436. Relying on incompatible acts and omissions in legal proceedings 1343

Section 437. Remedies for incompatible acts and omissions of public authorities: general 1345

Section 438. Remedies for incompatible acts and omissions: damages 1346

Section 439. Saving for other rights 1347

INDIVIDUAL CONVENTION RIGHTS 1347

Section 440. Article 2 of Convention (right to life) 1347

Section 441. Article 3 of Convention (prohibition of torture) 1348

Section 442. Article 4 of Convention (prohibition of slavery and forced labour) 1350

Section 443. Article 5 of Convention (right to liberty and security) 1350

Section 444. Article 6 of Convention (right to a fair trial) 1353

Section 445. Article 7 of Convention (no punishment without law) 1359

Section 446. Article 8 of Convention (right to respect for private and family life) 1359

Section 447. Article 9 of Convention (freedom of thought, conscience and religion) 1362

Section 448. Article 10 of Convention (freedom of expression) 1363

Section 449. Article 11 of Convention (freedom of assembly and association) 1364

Section 450. Article 12 of Convention (right to marry) 1365

Section 451. Article 14 of Convention (prohibition of discrimination) 1365

Section 452. Article 16 of Convention (restrictions on political activity of aliens) 1367

Section 453. Article 17 of Convention (prohibition of abuse of rights) 1368

Section 454. Article 18 of Convention (limitation on use of restrictions on rights) 1368

Section 455. Article 1 of First Protocol (protection of property) 1368

Section 456. Article 2 of First Protocol (right to education) 1369

Section 457. Article 3 of First Protocol (right to free elections) 1370

Section 458. Article 1 of Thirteenth Protocol (abolition of death penalty) 1370

Section 459. Article 2 of Thirteenth Protocol (death penalty in time of war) 1370

Section 460. Special provision regarding Article 9 (freedom of thought, conscience and religion) 1371

Section 461. Special provision regarding Article 10 (freedom of expression) 1371

INTERPRETATION OF PART XXX 1372

Section 462. Meaning of terms defined in or connected with Human Rights Act 1998 1372

Section 463. Meaning of ‘the Convention’. 1376

Section 464. Meaning of ‘public authority’. 1377

 

Appendix A. Court technique 1381

Appendix B. Checklist of interpretative criteria 1383

Appendix C. Updated Text of Interpretation Act 1978 1387

Appendix D Appendix to White Paper on Interpretation Act 1978 (C 30) 1409

Appendix E. List of Terms 1419

Appendix F. Human Rights Act 1998 1425

Appendix G. Headings, Sidenotes etc 1453

Appendix H. Some responses to Code s 288 (updating construction) 1457

Appendix I. Official guide to European Union legislative drafting 1461

 

Bibliography 1475

Index 1509